Chapter Five: Literary Arts and Poetry
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language-such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and meter-to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning (Poetry, 2013a; Poetry, 2013b; Poetry, n.d.).
Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing.
Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly figures of speech such as metaphor, simile and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images-a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived (Strachan & Terry, 2000). Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm.
Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm (Eliot, 1999; Longenbach, 1997; Schmidt, 1999). In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages.
Some scholars believe that the art of poetry may predate literacy (Hoivik & Luger, 2009). Others, however, suggest that poetry did not necessarily predate writing (Goody, 1987).
The oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer (in Mesopotamia, now Iraq), and was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, on papyrus (Sanders, 1972). A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity; it is considered the world's oldest love poem (Arsu, 2006; Mark, 2014). An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe (c. 1800 BCE).
Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey; the Avestan books, the Gathic Avesta and the Yasna; the Roman national epic, Virgil's Aeneid; and the Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, and the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient
societies (Ahl & Roisman, 1996; Goody, 1987).
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were initially lyrics (Ebrey, 1993).
The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, and what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"-the study of the aesthetics of poetry (Abondolo, 2001). Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing (Classic of Poetry), developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance (Gentz, 2008). More recently, thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Basho's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in context spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, and rap (Habib, 2005).
Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry-the epic, the comic, and the tragic-and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre (Heath, 1997). Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, and dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry (Frow, 2007).
Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age (Bogges, 1968; Burnett, 2001), as well as in Europe during the Renaissance (Grendler, 2004). Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to prose, which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure (Kant & Bernard, 1914).
This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability" (Ou, 2009, pp. 1-3). This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into the 20th century (Watten, 2003).
During this period, there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions, in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade (Abu-Mahfouz, 2008). In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered
Poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics (Chandler, 1997). Some commentators view genres as natural forms of literature. Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works.
Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry, but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest. Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed from compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Much narrative poetry-such as Scottish and English ballads, and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems-is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings, once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales (Kirk, 2010). Notable narrative poets have included Ovid, Dante, Juan Ruiz, William Langland, Chaucer, Fernando de Rojas, Luis de Camoes, Shakespeare, Alexander Pope,
Robert Burns, Adam Mickiewicz, Alexander Pushkin, Edgar Allan Poe, Alfred Tennyson, and Anne Carson.
Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings, states of mind, and perceptions (Blasing, 2006). Notable poets in this genre include Christine de Pizan, John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Antonio Machado, and Edna St. Vincent Millay.
Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons (Hainsworth, 1989). Examples of epic poems are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, the Nibelungenlied, Luis de Camoes' Os Lusiadas, the Cantar de Mio Cid, the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Mahabharata, Valmiki's Ramayana, Ferdowsi's Shahnama, Nizami (or Nezami)'s Khamse (Five Books), and the Epic of King Gesar. While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, some notable epics have continued to be written. Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros (Swedish Academy, n.d.).
Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal's satires (Dominik & Wehrle, 1999). The same is true of the English satirical tradition. John Dryden (a Tory), the first Poet Laureate, produced in 1682Mac Flecknoe, subtitled "A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S." (a reference to Thomas Shadwell) (Black, 2011, p. 1056). Another master of 17th-century English satirical poetry was John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (Treglown, 1973). Satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki, Azerbaijan's Sabir and Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage.
An elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter (elegiac meter), commonly describes a poem of mourning. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry (Kennedy, 2007; Pigman, 1985).
Notable practitioners of elegiac poetry have included Propertius, Jorge Manrique, Jan Kochanowski, Chidiock Tichborne, Edmund Spenser, Ben Jonson, John Milton, Thomas Gray, Charlotte Turner Smith, William Cullen Bryant, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Evgeny Baratynsky, Alfred Tennyson, Walt Whitman, Louis Gallet, Antonio Machado, Juan Ramon Jimenez, Giannina Braschi, William Butler Yeats, Rainer Maria Rilke, and Virginia Woolf.
The fable is an ancient literary genre, often (though not invariably) set in verse. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral
lesson (a "moral"). Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns (Abrams & Harpham, 2014). Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop, Vishnu Sarma, Phaedrus, Marie de France, Robert Henryson, Biernat of Lublin, Jean de La Fontaine, Ignacy Krasicki, Felix Maria de Samaniego, Tomas de Iriarte, Ivan Krylov and Ambrose Bierce.
Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying, sometimes related forms in many cultures. Greek tragedy in verse dates to the 6th century B.C. and may have been an influence on the development of Sanskrit drama) just as Indian drama in turn appears to have influenced the development of the bianwen verse dramas in China, forerunners of Chinese Opera (Dolby, 1983; Keith, 1992). East Asian verse dramas also include Japanese Noh. Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nizami's two famous dramatic works, Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin, Ferdowsi's tragedies such as Rostam and Sohrab, Rumi's Masnavi, Gorgani's tragedy of Vis and Ramin, and Vahshi's tragedy of Farhad.
Speculative poetry, also known as fantastic poetry (of which weird or macabre poetry is a major sub-classification), is a poetic genre which deals thematically with subjects which are "beyond reality", whether via extrapolation as in science fiction or via weird and horrific themes as in horror fiction. Such poetry appears regularly in modern science fiction and horror fiction magazines. Edgar Allan Poe is sometimes seen as the "father of speculative poetry" (Dutcher, 2005, pp. 11-17). Poe's most remarkable achievement in the genre was his anticipation, by three-quarters of a century, of the Big Bang theory of the universe's origin, in his then much-derided 1848 essay (which, due to its very speculative nature, he termed a "prose poem") Eureka: A Prose Poem (Robinson, 2015; Rombeck, 2005).
Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story (a.k.a. the "short short story", "flash fiction"). While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic, prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France, where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand, Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud and Stephane Mallarme (Monte, 2000). Since the late 1980s especially, prose poetry has gained increasing popularity, with entire journals, such as The Prose Poem: An International Journal, Contemporary Haibun Online, and Haibun Today devoted to that genre and its hybrids. Latin American poets of the 20th century who wrote prose poems include Octavio Paz and Giannina Braschi (Octavio Paz, n.d.; Braschi's Empire of Dreams, n.d.).
Light poetry, or light verse, is poetry that attempts to be humorous. Poems considered "light" are usually brief, and can be on a frivolous or serious subject, and often feature word play, including puns, adventurous rhyme and heavy alliteration. Although a few free verse poets have excelled at light verse outside the formal verse tradition, light verse in English is usually formal. Common forms include the limerick, the clerihew, and the double dactyl.
While light poetry is sometimes condemned as doggerel, or thought of as poetry composed casually, humor often makes a serious point in a subtle or subversive way. Many of the most renowned "serious" poets have also excelled at light verse. Notable writers of light poetry include Lewis Carroll, Ogden Nash, X. J. Kennedy, Willard R. Espy, and Wendy Cope.
Elements of Poetry
Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem. Rhythm and meter are different, although closely related (Pinsky, 1998). Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter), while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter (Fussell, 1965).
The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents, syllables, or moras, depending on how rhythm is established, though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches. Japanese is a mora-timed language. Syllable-timed languages include Latin, Catalan, French, Leonese, Galician and Spanish. English, Russian and, generally, German are stress-timed languages (Schulter, 2005). Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. Languages can rely on either pitch, such as in Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek, or tone. Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages
Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided) (Fussell, 1965). In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter (Jorgens, 1982). Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each
line (Fussell, 1965).
The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences (Walker-Jones, 2003). Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar) which ensured a rhythm (Bala Sundara Raman, Ishwar, & Ravindranath, 2003). In Chinese poetry, tones as well as stresses create rhythm. Classical Chinese poetics identifies four tones: the level tone, rising tone, departing tone, and entering tone (Brogan, 1995).
The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. In the case of free verse, rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Robinson Jeffers, Marianne Moore, and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry (Hartman, 1980). Jeffers experimented with sprung rhythm as an alternative to accentual rhythm (Hollander, 1981).
In the Western poetic tradition, meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line (Corn, 1997). The number of metrical feet in a line are described using Greek terminology: tetrameter for four feet and hexameter for six feet, for example (Corn, 1997). Thus, "iambic pentameter" is a meter comprising five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the
"iamb." This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho, and by the great tragedians of Athens. Similarly, "dactylic hexameter", comprises six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the "dactyl". Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry, the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod (Annis, 2006). Iambic pentameter and dactylic hexameter were later used by a number of poets, including William Shakespeare and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, respectively (Examples of English Metrical Systems, n.d.). The most common metrical feet in English are:
• iamb-one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (e.g. des-cribe, in-clude, re-tract);
• trochee-one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable (e.g. pic-ture, flow-er);
• dactyl-one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables (e.g. an-no-tate, sim-i-lar);
• anapest-two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable (e.g. com-pre-hend);
• spondee-two stressed syllables together (e.g. heart-beat, four-teen);
• pyrrhic-two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter). (Fussell, 1965, pp. 23-24)
There are a wide range of names for other types of feet, right up to a choriamb, a four-syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry (Annis, 2006). Languages which utilize vowel length or intonation rather than or in addition to syllabic accents in determining meter, such as Ottoman Turkish or Vedic, often have concepts similar to the iamb and dactyl to describe common combinations of long and short sounds (Kiparsky, 1975).
Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel," whether alone or in combination with other feet. The iamb, for example, is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language, and generally produces a subtle but stable verse (Thompson, 1961). Scanning meter can often show the basic or fundamental pattern underlying a verse, but does not show the varying degrees of stress, as well as the differing pitches and lengths of syllables (Pinsky, 1998).
There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. For example, Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse, English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests, feet which he considers natural to the language (Pinsky, 1998). Actual rhythm is significantly more complex than the basic scanned meter described above, and many scholars have sought to develop systems that would scan such complexity. Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress (Nabokov, 1964, pp. 9-13).
Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters, ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes. However, a number of variations to the established meter are common, both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. For example, the stress in a foot may be inverted, a caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress), or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop. Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular, while other patterns, such as dactylic hexameter, tend to be highly irregular (Fussell, 1965). Regularity can vary between language. In addition, different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages, so that, for example, iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter, which
does not occur, or occurs to a much lesser extent, in English (Nabokov, 1964). Some common metrical patterns, with notable examples of poets and poems who use them, include:
• Iambic pentameter (John Milton, Paradise Lost; William Shakespeare, Sonnets) (Adams, 1997, p.
Rhyme, Alliteration, and Assonance
Rhyme, alliteration, assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem, to reinforce rhythmic patterns, or as an ornamental element (Corn, 1997). They can also carry a meaning separate from the repetitive sound patterns created. For example, Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic
Rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines ("internal rhyme"). Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures; Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme (Alighieri & Pinsky, 1994). The degree of richness of a language's rhyming structures plays a substantial role in determining what poetic forms are commonly used in that language (Kiparsky, 1973).
Alliteration is the repetition of letters or letter-sounds at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals; or the recurrence of the same letter in accented parts of words. Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic, Norse and Old English forms of poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure, so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry, where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas. Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures.
Assonance, where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word, was widely used in skaldic poetry, but goes back to the Homeric epic (Russom, 1998). Because verbs carry much of the pitch in the English language, assonance can loosely evoke the tonal elements of Chinese poetry and so is useful in translating Chinese poetry (Liu, 1990). Consonance occurs where a consonant sound is repeated throughout a sentence without putting the sound only at the front of a word. Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element
In many languages, including modern European languages and Arabic, poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms, such as ballads, sonnets and rhyming couplets. However, the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Much modern poetry avoids
traditional rhyme schemes. Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme (Wesling, 1980). Rhyme entered European poetry in the High Middle Ages, in part under the influence of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (modern Spain) (Menocal, 2003). Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the first development of literary Arabic in the sixth century, as in their long, rhyming qasidas (Sperl, 1996. Some rhyming schemes have become associated with a specific language, culture or period, while other rhyming schemes have achieved use across languages, cultures or time periods. Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme, such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat, while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes (Adams, 1997).
Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes, so if the first, second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line does not rhyme, the quatrain is said to have an "a-a-b-a" rhyme scheme. This rhyme scheme is the one used, for example, in the rubaiyat form (Fussell, 1965). Similarly, an "a-b-b-a" quatrain (what is known as "enclosed rhyme") is used in such forms as the Petrarchan sonnet (Adams, 1997). Some types of more complicated rhyming schemes have developed names of their own, separate from the "a-b-c" convention, such as the ottava rima and terza rima (Corn,
Form in Poetry
Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. Many modern poets eschew recognizable structures or forms and write in free verse. But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form; some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse, however much such structures may appear to have been ignored (Whitworth, 2010). Similarly, in the best poetry written in classic styles there will be departures from strict form for emphasis or effect (Hollander, 1981).
Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line, the stanza or verse paragraph, and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos. Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures, called poetic forms or poetic modes (see following section), as in the sonnet or haiku.
Lines and Stanzas
Poetry is often separated into lines on a page. These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. Lines may serve other functions, particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern. Lines can separate, compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units, or can highlight a change in tone (Corn, 1997).
Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas, which are denominated by the number of lines included. Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet (or distich), three lines a triplet (or tercet), four lines a quatrain, and so on. These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm. For example, a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone (Corn,
Other poems may be organized into verse paragraphs, in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used, but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms, alliterations, and rhymes established in paragraph form (Corn, 1997). Many medieval poems were written in verse paragraphs, even where regular rhymes and rhythms were used (Dalrymple, 2004).
In many forms of poetry, stanzas are interlocking, so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Examples of such interlocking stanzas include, for
example, the ghazal and the villanelle, where a refrain (or, in the case of the villanelle, refrains) is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas. Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. For example, the strophe, antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas (Corn, 1997).
In some cases, particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry, stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. In skaldic poetry, the drottkvaett stanza had eight lines, each having three "lifts" produced with alliteration or assonance. In addition to two or three alliterations, the odd numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels, not necessarily at the beginning of the word; the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables (not necessarily at the end of the word). Each half-line had exactly six syllables, and each line ended in a trochee. The arrangement of drottkvatts followed far less rigid rules than the construction of the individual drottkvatts (McTurk, 2004).
Even before the advent of printing, the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth. Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem (Freedman, 1972). In Arabic, Hebrew and Chinese poetry, the visual presentation of finely calligraphed poems has played an important part in the overall effect of many poems (Kampf, 2010).
With the advent of printing, poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work (Figure 5.1). Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox, and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes. Some Modernist poets have made the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page an integral part of the poem's composition. At times, this complements the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths, or creates juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning, ambiguity or irony, or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form. In its most extreme form, this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing (Bohn, 1993; Sterling,
Figure 5.1. Visual Poetry
Poetic diction treats the manner in which language is used and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form (Barfield, 1987). Many languages and poetic forms have very specific poetic dictions, to the point where distinct grammars and dialects are used specifically for poetry (Blank, 1996; Sheets, 1981). Registers in poetry can range from strict employment of ordinary speech patterns, as favored in much late-20th-century prosody through to highly ornate uses of language, as in medieval and Renaissance poetry (Paden, 2000; Perloff, 2002).
Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor, as well as tones of voice, such as irony. Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor" (Aristotle, n.d. p. 22). Since the rise of Modernism, some poets have opted for a poetic diction that de-emphasizes rhetorical devices, attempting instead the direct presentation of things and experiences and the exploration of tone (Davis & Jenkins, 2007). On the other hand, Surrealists have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits, making frequent use of catachresis (San Juan, 2004).
Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures, and were prominent in the West during classical times, the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Aesop's Fables, repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about 500 B.C., are perhaps the richest single source of allegorical poetry through the ages (Treip, 1994). Other notable examples include the Roman de la Rose, a 13th-century French poem, William Langland's Piers Ploughman in the 14th century, and Jean de la Fontaine's Fables (influenced by Aesop's) in the 17th century. Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory (Crisp, 2005).
Another element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku (Gilbert, 2004). Vivid images are often endowed with symbolism or metaphor. Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase (such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea") or a longer refrain. Such repetition can add a sombre tone to a poem or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes (Hollander, 1981).
Among the most common forms of poetry, popular from the Late Middle Ages on, is the sonnet, which by the 13th century had become standardized as fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. By the 14th century and the Italian Renaissance, the form had further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch, whose sonnets were translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt, who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature (Corn, 1997). A traditional Italian or Petrarchan sonnet follows the rhyme scheme abba, abba, cdecde, though some variation, especially within the final six lines (or sestet), is common (Minta, 1980). The English (or Shakespearean) sonnet follows the rhyme scheme abab, cdcd, efef, gg, introducing a third quatrain (grouping of four lines), a final couplet, and a greater amount of variety with regard to rhyme than is usually found in its Italian predecessors. By convention, sonnets in English typically use iambic pentameter, while in the Romance languages, the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters.
Sonnets of all types often make use of a volta, or "turn," a point in the poem at which an idea is turned on its head, a question is answered (or introduced), or the subject matter is further complicated. This volta can often take the form of a "but" statement contradicting or complicating the content of the earlier lines. In the Petrarchan sonnet, the turn tends to fall around the division between the first two quatrains and the sestet, while English sonnets usually place it at or near the beginning of the closing couplet.
Sonnets are particularly associated with high poetic diction, vivid imagery, and romantic love, largely due to the influence of Petrarch as well as of early English practitioners such as Edmund Spenser (who gave his name to the Spenserian sonnet), Michael Drayton, and Shakespeare, whose sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with twenty being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse (Quiller-Couch, 1900). However, the twists and turns associated with the volta allow for a logical flexibility applicable to many subjects (Fussell, 1965). Poets from the earliest centuries of the sonnet to the present have utilized
the form to address topics related to politics (John Milton, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Claude McKay), theology (John Donne, Gerard Manley Hopkins), war (Wilfred Owen, e. e. cummings), and gender and sexuality (Carol Ann Duffy). Further, postmodern authors such as Ted Berrigan and John Berryman have challenged the traditional definitions of the sonnet form, rendering entire sequences of "sonnets" that often lack rhyme, a clear logical progression, or even a consistent count of fourteen lines.
Shi (simplified Chinese:
pinyin: shi; Wade-Giles: shih) Is the main type of
Classical Chinese poetry (Watson, 1971). Within this form of poetry the most important variations are "folk song" styled verse (yuefu), "old style" verse (gushi), "modern style" verse (jintishi) (Figure 5.2). In all cases, rhyming is obligatory. The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style, and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular. For the other variations of shi poetry, generally either a four line (quatrain, or jueju) or else an eight line poem is normal; either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. The line length is scanned by according number of characters (according to the convention that one character equals one syllable), and are predominantly either five or seven characters long, with a caesura before the final three syllables. The lines are generally end-stopped, considered as a series of couplets, and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device (Watson, 1971). The "old style" verse (gushi) is less formally strict than the jintishi, or regulated verse, which, despite the name "new style" verse actually had its theoretical basis laid as far back as Shen Yue (441-513 CE), although not considered to have reached its full development until the time of Chen Zi'ang (661-702 CE) (Watson, 1971). A good example of a poet known for his gushi poems is Li Bai (701-762 CE). Among its other rules, the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem, including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese. The basic form of jintishi (lushi) has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion, and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics (Faurot, 1998; Wang, 2004). One of the masters of the form was Du Fu (712-770 CE), who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century) (Schirokauer, 1989).
Figure 5.2. The Shijing (Classic of Poetry)
The villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains. The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme (Kumin, 2002). The villanelle has been used regularly in the English language since the late 19th century by such poets as Dylan Thomas (1952), W. H. Auden (1945), and Elizabeth Bishop (1976).
A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines and is often humorous. Rhythm is very important in limericks for the first, second and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables. However, the third and fourth lines only need five to seven. All of the lines must rhyme and have the same rhythm.
Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, with five sections totalling 31 onji (phonological units identical to morae), structured in a 5-7-5-7-7 pattern (Alim, Ibrahim, & Pennycook, 2008). There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper 5-7-5 phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase. Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (fl. late 7th century), at a time when Japan was emerging from a period where much of its poetry followed Chinese form (Brower & Miner, 1988). Tanka was originally the shorter form of Japanese formal poetry (which was generally referred to as "waka") and was used more heavily to explore personal rather than public themes. By the tenth century, tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, to the point where the originally general term waka ("Japanese poetry") came to be used exclusively for tanka. Tanka are still widely written
today (McCllintock, Ness, & Kacian, 2003).
Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar, and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins (Gray, 2000). The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures. In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction, and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode (Gayley & Young, 2005). Over time, differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure, but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode. One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry (Kuiper, 2011).
The ghazal (also ghazel, gazel, gazal, or gozol) is a form of poetry common in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. This refrain may be of one or several syllables and is preceded by a rhyme. Each line has an identical meter. The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity (Campo, 2009).
As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu (Qureshi, 1990). Ghazals have a classical affinity with Sufism, and a number of major Sufi religious works are written in ghazal form. The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well (Sequeira, 1981). Among the masters of the form is Rumi, a 13th-century Persian poet (Schimmel, 1988). One of the most famous poet in this type of poetry is Hafez. Themes of his Ghazal is exposing hypocrisy. His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author (Khan, 1936). West-ostlicher Diwan of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe that is a collection of lyrical poems, has been inspired by the Persian poet Hafez (Akhundi, n.d.; Shamel, 2013).
Haiku is a type of Japanese poetry. Previously called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century.
The traditional hokku usually was written in six verses or more or less 5, 7, 5 syllables (on-ji). The Japanese word cow, meaning "sound", corresponds to a mora, a phonetic unit similar but not identical to the syllable of a language such as English. A haiku has a special season word (the kigo) to represent the season in which the poem is set, or a reference to the natural world (Table 5.1).
Table 5.1. Haiku Structure in English
|Line 1||5 syllables||A Haiku poem has a special season word to represent the season in|
|Line 2||7 syllables||which the poem is set or a reference to the natural word.|
|Line 3||5 syllables|
Haiku usually breaks in three parts, called kireji, normally placed at the end of the first five or second seven morae. In Japanese, there are actual kireji words. In English, kireji is often replaced with commas, hyphens, elipses, or breaks in the haiku. Japanese haiku are normally written in one line, while English language haiku are traditionally separated into three lines.
In Japanese, nouns do not have different singular and plural forms, so "haiku" is used as both a singular and plural noun in English as well. Japanese hokku and haiku are traditionally printed in one vertical line.
An Example of Haiku by Basho:
(Hatsu shigure saru mo komino wo hoshige nari) The first cold shower (5 syllables) Even the monkey seems to want (7 syllables) A little coat of straw (5 syllables)
(Coats and straw hats were normally used in Japan to protect from rain at the time)
A Haiku Example: Lotus Blossom by a Fifth-Grade Student (Figure 5.3) Figure 5.3. Lotus Blossom
Lotus blossoms bloom, Morning dew glimmers on them, How pretty they look
A Haiku Example: Nature (Figure 5.4) Figure 5.4. Nature
Nature's here with us She is all we need and want She'll forever be
Cinquain /' sιηkeιn/ is a class of poetic forms that employ a 5-line pattern. Earlier used to describe any five-line form, it now refers to one of several forms that are defined by specific rules and guidelines. The modern form, known as American Cinquain (Alakalay-Gut,1985; Garison, 2002), was inspired by Japanese haiku and tanka (Drury, 2006, p. 61; Toleos, n.d. a) akin in spirit to that of the Imagists (Stillman, 1972). In her 1915 collection titled Verse, published one year after her death, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1914) included 28 cinquains (Toleos, n.d. b). Crapsey's American Cinquain form developed in two stages. The first, fundamental form is a stanza of five lines of accentual verse, in which the lines comprise, in order, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 1 stresses. Then Crapsey decided to make the criterion a stanza of five lines of accentual-syllabic verse, in which the lines comprise, in order, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 1 stresses and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 2 syllables. Iambic feet were meant to be the standard for the cinquain, which made the dual criteria match perfectly. Some resource materials define classic cinquains as solely iambic, but that is not necessarily so (Garison, 2002). In contrast to the Eastern forms upon which she based them, Crapsey always titled her cinquains, effectively utilizing the title as a sixth line. Crapsey's cinquain depends on strict structure and intense physical imagery to communicate a mood or feeling (Post, 2002). The Scottish poet William Soutar also wrote over one hundred American Cinquains (he labelled them Epigrams) between 1933 and 1940 (Strand, 2005). The form of American Cinquain is illustrated by Crapsey's poem "November Night":
With faint dry sound,
Like steps of passing ghosts,
The leaves, frost-crisp'd, break from the trees
(Craspey, 1922, p. 31; as cited in Toleos, n.d.b)
The Crapsey cinquain has subsequently seen a number of variations by modern poets. Detailed descriptions are summarized in Table 5.2:
Table 5.2. Cinquain Variations
|Reverse Cinquain||a form with one 5-line stanza in a syllabic pattern of two, eight, six, four, two|
|Mirror Cinquain||a form with two 5-line stanzas consisting of a cinquain followed by a reverse cinquain|
|Butterfly Cinquain||a nine-line syllabic form with the pattern two, four, six, eight, two, eight, six, four, two|
|Crown Cinquain||a sequence of five cinquain stanzas functioning to construct one larger poem|
|Garland Cinquain||a series of six cinquains in which the last is formed of lines from the preceding five, typically line one from stanza one, line two from stanza two, and so on|
The didactic cinquain is closely related to the Crapsey cinquain. It is an informal cinquain widely taught in elementary schools and has been featured in, and popularized by, children's media resources, including Junie B. Jones and PBS Kids. This form is also embraced by young adults and older poets for its expressive simplicity. The prescriptions of this type of cinquain refer to word count, not syllables and stresses. Ordinarily, the first line is a one-word title, the subject of the poem; the second line is a pair of adjectives describing that title; the third line is a three-word phrase that gives more information about the subject (often a list of three gerunds); the fourth line consists of four words describing feelings related to that
subject; and the fifth line is a single word synonym or other reference for the subject from line one (see Table 5.3).
Table 5.3. Structure of A Didactic Cinquain Poem
|Line 1||1 word||One noun (subject)|
|Line 2||2 words||Two adjectives describing the subject|
|Line 3||3 words||Three verbs in -ing form giving more information about the subject|
|Line 4||4 words||A four-word phrase (or sentence) describing feelings|
|Line 5||1 word||One noun (synonym of line 1)|
An example of Didactic Cinquain "Snow" (Figure 5.5):
Silent, White Dancing, Falling, Drifting Covers Everything It Touches Blanket
Figure 5.5. Snow
More Cinquain Examples:
Bitter, Sweet Repetitive, Redundant
Fulfilling, Exciting, Gratifying Reflecting, Crying, Terrifying We Are Finally Done! This Is So Stupid!!
Integrating Poetry in the Curriculum
Poetry is a great tool for students to express authentic learning creatively and can be integrated into all content areas. In the classroom, building a poetry club or forming a poetry circle can encourage poetry reading, practice, and creation. The teacher could also create a poetry billboard for students to share their poems. Students' poetic expression is limited to the classroom. Their observations from authentic learning environment, such as field trips and zoo, provide many wonderful opportunities for them to express their learning poetically and creatively (Shubitz, 2017). Lived experiences from visiting museums, holiday breaks, vacation, or other excursions, can also become the platform for poetry integration to stimulate students' imagination and creativity.
In integrating poetry in the classroom, Schoch (n.d.) suggested using poetry with the following strategies in mind:
• Activate prior knowledge
• Establish theme
• Explore language
• Focus on facts
• Set a scene
• Inspire writing
• See new perspectives
• Ignite curiosity
• Provide pleasure
• Capture character
Poetry is powerful in multiple aspects of learning. Poetry can be used to improve literacy, language arts reading fluency and comprehension, and to promote mathematical reasoning among students, especially those who learn linguistically (Martin, 2008; Stange (2008)). Poetry is effective in classroom management, character building, socialization, and learning community (Martin, 2008; Stange, 2008). Poetry plays a pivotal role in the whole-child approach in education.
Poetry let students to see the beauty and power of language; integrating poetry in all content areas engage students in new perspectives, mathematical reasoning, language analytical thinking, and scientific inquiry. Poetry can be integrated as a central thematic element in the classroom to reinforce student learning in virtually every content area and to create a positive learning environment where students work cooperatively to express their learning, thoughts, and feelings creatively (Martin, 2008).
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