I. Imperial and colonial contexts
France and Britain had fought a series of wars in the 1700s, mainly in Europe. The first was the War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697), a conflict between France and the Holy Roman Empire (a conglomeration of Austria and several hundred other, smaller, German-speaking principalities in central Europe at this time) on one hand and between France and various Protestant states on the other. France was essentially trying to seize territory and exert its influence but was forced to accept peace in the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. In the second of these conflicts, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713), the French and their allies were fighting to maintain control over the Spanish throne. (The French king’s grandson had been named heir but a number of other states were alarmed that one royal house might control too much territory.) Neither of these two wars are, in themselves, crucial to our story of early American history, except insofar as the wars spilled over from Europe into the Americas.
Already rivals in Europe, the enmity between France and Britain only increased in North America. During the War of Spanish Succession, the French had surrendered Acadia to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht, and the British renamed the colony Nova Scotia (it became a British colony). The Acadian settlers stayed, and few Britons ever came to colonize the land, leaving 6,000 French-speaking farmers there. The French retained control of the Northern part of the island, where they had a large fortified seaport called Louisbourg; from here the French controlled the St. Lawrence River that stretched into the interior of Canada, to Quebec and Montreal (which remained part of New France).
The third conflict, the War of Jenkins Ear (1739-1748), began when tensions between Spain and British sailors and smugglers escalated. Robert Jenkins, a British captain, appeared before Parliament holding his ear, which he claimed had been sliced off by the Spanish. Parliament launched a war against Spanish shipping, and the Spanish defeated the British at St. Augustine and Cartagena, attacked Georgia (the British held them off). The French entered the war late in the game, and the conflict took place in both North America and in Europe. The British captured Louisbourg, but as a result of the treaty, returned it. The war ended in a stalemate. The peace treaty was unpopular in Britain. Wounded by the criticism, the British colonial authorities resolved to pay closer attention to North America in the next war and to keep any gains there.
Two things then happened, proving that the peace of 1748 would be short-lived:
First, with the latest war over with, French authorities in North America began to establish a string of forts in the Ohio Country west of the Allegheny Mountains. Their intent was to keep fur-trapping and trading activities in the hands of French citizens and to deny the area to land-hungry American colonists.
Second, in the 1740s a group of Virginians received from the Crown a massive land grant for lands in the Ohio valley. They established the Ohio Company for the purpose of investing in the western lands and opening them up to trade and settlement.
In 1753, Virginia lieutenant governor Robert Dinwiddie, himself a member of the Ohio Company, dispatched George Washington (also a member of the Ohio Company) into the disputed territory. The intent was to deliver a letter of protest to the French officials. The French refused to vacate. The following year, Governor Dinwiddie sought, but failed, to secure assistance from the other colonies in a proposed effort to expel the French. He again turned to Washington, then 22 years old, who led his men westward into the disputed area. On May 28, Washington’s forces surprised a group of French and Indians, inflicted heavy casualties, and took a number of captives. The colonial forces then hastily constructed Fort Necessity, not far from the French Fort Duquesne. On July 3, the French forces struck back, defeating Washington and his men at the Battle of Great Meadows, and took over Fort Necessity. The French and Indian War (1756-1763) had begun. Washington was forced to surrender on July 4 and returned with his men to Virginia.
The French commander treated his opponents leniently in the hope of avoiding a broader conflict. Nevertheless, the opening shots of the French and Indian War had been fired. Washington’s loss only made the Britain more resolved to assert its claims in the Ohio Country.
While Washington was engaging the French in western Pennsylvania, colonial delegates from seven of the British colonies gathered in Albany in an effort to prepare for the coming war. Discussions focused on two primary issues:
(1) The Iroquois: Often referred to as the Six Nations, the Iroquois had traditionally maintained stronger relationships with the French than the British, but by the 1740s the British were actively engaged in trade with many tribes in the Ohio Valley. Native leaders were not anxious to commit themselves to siding with one power or the other, preferring to wait and see if they could ally with the winning side. Nevertheless, the Albany officials were successful with winning a tepid commitment from the Iroquois in return for substantial bribes of supplies and weapons.
(2) The Albany Plan of Union: Benjamin Franklin and Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson drafted a proposal for colonial unity in the face of the coming war with France. The plan called for the creation of new layers of government, including a president-general who would be appointed by the Crown and exercise broad powers over relationships with the natives, making war and governing the frontier areas until new colonies were created. A grand council was also proposed whose members would be appointed by the existing colonial assemblies and whose representation would be determined by the amount of financial contribution (taxes) paid to the organization.
The plan for a federated colonial government never got off the ground. It was approved by the delegates at Albany, but not a single colonial assembly ratified it. It was doubtful, even if approved by the assemblies that royal officials would have approved of this consolidation of power in America.
Instead, the Board of Trade in London proposed the creation of a colonial council composed of one representative from each colony. That body would be responsible for raising militia forces (i.e. local farmers, merchants, and workers who took up arms but who did not fight very well) and apportioning the cost among the membership. This idea elicited little enthusiasm in America, where the colonists preferred to have British regulars (i.e. professional soldiers) fight their battles with money raised on the other side of the Atlantic. (The Albany Plan of Union set an example that would later be followed by such gatherings as the continental congresses.)
The early period of the war saw localized action in North America and began with Washington's loss at Fort Necessity. Neither side committed much in the way of troop strength or resources to the effort. Most of the action was confined to attempts to capture the opponent's fortified positions on the frontier.
60-second Quiz #1: What were some of the imperial and colonial conflicts that existed before the French and Indian War? Which of the following is NOT one of these conflicts:
a. British and French rivalry for power and influence in Europe
b. British and French competition for power and influence in North America
c. Willingness of the English colonies to unite together to face the French threat
d. Unwillingness of the English colonies to unite together to face the French threat
II. Major highlights
What follows are some of the major highlights during this period:
In 1755, two British regiments led by General Edward Braddock were ambushed and murdered when they tried to attack Fort Duquesne, yet the British scored a major victory in Nova Scotia, and as a result, drove out the French residents, the Acadiens. A large number of them relocated to Louisiana, and became the Cajuns.
Formal war was declared between Britain and France in 1756, and a small colonial conflict was transformed into a world war. Spain also entered the conflict, fighting both the British and the French. Effecting a reversal of past alliances, Austria sided with France and Britain with Prussia. Thus, there was fighting in Europe, too, and in all the colonies all around the world that all the countries involved possessed. (Of course, we’ll be concerned with what happened in North America.)
The picture was further complicated by the allegiances of the area’s natives. As a rule, most of the tribes tended to favor the French who enjoyed a reputation for conducting business more fairly than the British. Further, the French trappers and traders did not threaten to inundate the region with settlers, unlike the British colonists. The French had cultivated a network of Indian allies on the Middle Ground, and had a long string of small forts and trading posts that stretched around the Great Lakes and down the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. The Indians faced a greater threat from settler invasion and environmental transformation from the more numerous and certainly more aggressive English than from the far fewer and much more generous French.
In North America the string of British failures continued, especially in New York. The French defeated the British at Fort Oswego in 1756, and Louis Joseph, the Marquis of Montcalm, arrived as the new French commander and successfully pushed southward from Lake Champlain to Lake George. In August 1757, Fort William Henry fell, leaving Albany susceptible to French invasion. (This is the battle depicted in the movie The Last of the Mohicans. It was actually filmed in Chimney Rock Park in North Carolina.)
By 1757, the French fielded a North American army of slightly more than 10,000 men, about equally divided between regulars and Canadian militia; the Indian allies were undependable by this point. The British, on the other hand, had 20,000 regulars and an equal number of militiamen. The overall population of British North America was about 10 times that of New France, and the French were impaired by longer and more exposed lines of supply.
Lake George was wilderness. It was the void between two encroaching European frontiers. Just a few miles north of the lake, stood Fort Carillon, the French fortress, designed to guard the area north from any English advance into Canada. Several miles south and east of the lake stood Fort Edward, on the Hudson, the northern terminus of the English foray into this forested area. Between the two stood the 26 mile long Lake George.
Named Lac Du St. Sacrement by the French, the place was renamed Lake George by William Johnson in 1755, shortly before he had defeated a French force there in the Battle of Lake George, to leave no doubt as to English sovereignty in the area. A road, constructed to link Fort Edward to the lake, now needed protection. In addition, a fort at this site could prove to be a launching and resupplying point for assaults against the French outposts and beyond. Thus was born Fort William Henry, designed and situated by Captain William Eyre along with Johnson.
On June 7, 1756 General Daniel Webb arrived to assume command of the fort and lead the upcoming planned offensive. At both ends of the lake, French and English garrisons were increased, entrenchments built, and preparations undergone. Over the course of the next year, a series of raids, counter-raids, and scouting missions occurred leading to some casualties and gathered intelligence.
It soon became apparent that Fort William Henry was becoming a thorn in the side of New France. General Marquis de Montcalm, in command at Fort Carillon, decided to invest and reduce the log structure at the south end of the Lake. Departing from his post on Lake Champlain in late-July, 1757, the French under Montcalm assembled 3,081 regulars, 2,946 Canadian militia, and 1,806 Indian warriors.
1806 warriors from 33 tribes accompanied Montcalm. The central antagonists were NOT Hurons, as portrayed in the movie, but rather Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomie, and Menominee Indians from the Pais d’en haut (the Great Lakes Region). There were also Abenaki, Iroquois, and Nipissing from the Canadian mission villages.
By contrast, the garrison at Fort William Henry, under the able leadership of Lt. Colonel George Monro - once General Webb decided to turn tail and survey matters from Fort Edward - had a total, as the siege began, of 2372 men. Only a maximum of 500 could man the fort. The remainder settled into an entrenched camp just east of the fort. No preparations were undertaken to resist French attempts to make landings on the shore. The English merely waited. Expecting the attack to come from the west - the east side being swampy and fortified by the camp - Monro had the heaviest of the artillery pieces along the west wall. And so it was to be...
Montcalm chose the northwest bastion to bear the brunt of the artillery barrage he planned. Arriving during the night of August 2-3, 1757, he immediately set to work building a road and then a series of entrenchments to inch ever-closer to the fort walls. Meanwhile, Indian and militia marksman positioned themselves between the entrenched camp and Fort Edward, straddling the road, and harassed the beleaguered British.
As the days went on, the French artillery moved closer, the British casualties mounted, and hope of reinforcement continued to dwindle. Couriers were routinely dispatched between the British forts, often times being intercepted by the French or their Indian allies. One such message, from Webb, encouraged surrender, as at the time, he felt he could not aid Monro. On August 7, Montcalm ordered his aid-de-camp, Captain Bougainville, forward under a flag of truce to make this intercepted letter known to the garrison. By the next morning, the French trenches were a mere 250 yards outside the fort wall. Within the fort, ammunition was low, spirits were lower. There was little hope.
And so, just after dawn on the 9th of August, following a conference of the fort's officers, a flag of truce was visible flying over Fort William Henry. Montcalm offered generous terms; even for the typically gentlemanly terms of the day: the entire garrison would be allowed to march off in military parade, colors flying, to Fort Edward. A cannon would even be allowed to accompany the procession. In return, the English would not bear arms against France for the next 18 months. No ammunition would be granted, and the sick and wounded would be returned when well. One British officer would remain as hostage, until the French escort attached to the retreating column, returned safely from Fort Edward. In European terms, all was well. The paid French soldiers had earned their victory. Once burned, there would no longer be a British post on the shores of Lake George. The British, though defeated, had retained their honor. The siege of Fort William Henry was over.
Many of the Indians accompanying Montcalm had canoed a thousand miles on French promises of scalps, prisoners, and weapons, promises that were repeated by Montcalm. However, with the generous terms of surrender, British and colonial soldiers were released with their arms and personal possessions in exchange for agreeing not to fight the French and Indians for 18 months. With the victorious French claiming the fort, cannon and supplies for the Canadian government, the Indians were left with very little but anger and disappointment.
Indians entered the camp at dawn, August 10—they took blacks and Indians, horses, kettles, personal possessions of white officers. They killed and scalped the severely wounded, because under the peace agreement, the French would have to nurse these back to health.
The next event did not begin with a firefight as portrayed in the film. 1600 Indians, with guns but hardly any ammo, attacked 2,300 disarmed parolees. The numbers are unclear, but anywhere from 70-180 were killed. The movie misrepresents Indian actions. Magua was not motivated by revenge, and Munro and all the other British officers survived the attack.
Indians took perhaps a few hundred prisoners; a few hundred more fled into the woods, many wandered around for weeks, and others made their way south to fort William Henry.
The Indians held the prisoners ransom for goods and 30 bottles of brandy.
After the massacre, the French troops brought the British soldiers and the survivors to fort Edward and burned Fort William Henry to the ground.
By 1758, things started to turn around for the British, when King George II appointed William Pitt to lead the war effort. Pitt controlled the war effort almost single-handedly:
Pitts paid Frederick the Great of Prussia to do the fighting for Britain in Europe. He then instructed the royal navy to set up a blockade against the French, which cut off French supplies and enabled British supplies to get through to the colonies. Pitt further publicly criticized the French and won support in both Britain and the colonies for the war effort. Finally, Pitt appointed dynamic young military commanders, particularly Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe.
So the British concentrated on North America, and invested even more money and effort into winning.
In 1758, the British scored major victories; with the British victory at Louisbourg, they now controlled the St. Lawrence River and set up a blockade. British victories continued in 1759; Jeffrey Amherst won at the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga, and most especially, the fate of French Canada was sealed by the British victory in Quebec City, a battle in which both Wolfe and Montcalm died. The British strategy reached its conclusion in 1760, when they successfully completed their attack from the Great Lakes east, from New York north and from the Atlantic Provinces of Canada southeast; the British scored a major victory and seized Montreal in 1760. With this, for all practical purposes the French had been defeated, because their major forts and cities had been taken in the west, in New York, the St. Lawrence valley, and in the Atlantic Provinces of present-day Canada.
With superior numbers (1.5 million residents, a much larger army, superior sailors, warships and cannon, the British also spent 10 times as much money as the French, who only had 75,000 residents, and whose army and navy concentrated elsewhere in the world. The British also scored naval victories against the French, and against the Spanish, who jumped into the war near its end hoping to prey on the British.
60-Second Quiz #2: How did the British go from losing the war to winning the war? Which of the following statements it most true?
a. The British relied on superior numbers of Indian allies during the war than France did
b. The French won no major military victories during the war
c. The British relied on more extensive military support from Spain during the war than did France
d. The British decided to invest more money, more troops, and more resources into the war than did France
III. Deteriorating relations with the Indians
Meanwhile, in 1759-1760, conflict with the Indians continued on the frontier for some time, most especially, a struggle with the Cherokee, allies of the French, in the South Carolina frontier. Late in the war, with the French facing defeat, South Carolina settlers invaded Cherokee lands and poached their deer.
About 100 Cherokee accompanied a British expedition that was intended to attack the French-allied Shawnee but the campaign was abandoned when their provisions were lost while attempting to cross a swollen river. The Cherokee began home on foot in starving condition, angered at the contempt and neglect they experienced from the British. They "confiscated" some free-roaming horses belonging to Virginia colonists, feeling fully justified considering their service to the ungrateful colonists. The colonists, however, attacked the Cherokee, killing over twenty of them. The Cherokee dead were mutilated and scalped and the scalps redeemed for bounty as provided by Virginia law.
The chiefs of the Nation attempted to negotiate restitution with the colonists but the young warriors were so incensed that they began raiding border settlements. The colonists declared war, cut-off all trade, and demanded that numerous chiefs be surrendered for execution. Thirty-two prominent Cherokee, including the famous war chief Oconostota, went to Fort Prince George, in South Carolina, to attempt to negotiate peace but the British took the whole party prisoner. Chief Attacullakulla, the Little Carpenter, was able to negotiate the release of Oconostota and two others while the remaining twenty-nine chiefs remained captive.
Angered at the tactics of the British, Oconostota laid siege to Fort Prince George. The commander of the fort was called out to speak to Oconostota but when he came out he was shot and killed. The garrison of the fort immediately killed their twenty-nine captives. With war now in full swing, Oconostota's warriors begin raiding the Carolina settlements while other Cherokees laid siege to Fort Loudoun in what is now eastern Tennessee. A force of 1,600 Colonials drove Cherokees back and destroyed numerous towns. The Cherokee, however, massed a large force and in June of 1760 forced the colonists to retire leaving Fort Loudoun under siege.
Fort Loudoun surrendered to Oconostota in August on the condition that they would be allowed safe passage with sufficient arms and ammunition for the march home but delivering all other weapons and ammunition to the Cherokee. When they occupied the fort, the Cherokee discovered that powder, balls (i.e., bullets), and cannon had been buried or thrown in the river. Angered at the former garrison's deception, the Cherokees attacked the soldiers the next morning killing 29 in the first volley and taking the remainder prisoner until they were later ransomed by the colony.
The colonists demanded revenge and, despite attempts for peace by Attacullakulla, sent an 2,600 man force in 1761 which destroyed 15 Cherokee towns and "pushed the frontier seventy miles farther to the west" though incurring heavy losses in the process. Attacullakulla was able to negotiate a treaty with the South Carolina colony in September of 1761.
In November of the same year, a force of Virginians who had descended as far as present-day Kingsport, TN were met by a delegation of Cherokees and a treaty was signed. In addition, Lt. Henry Timberlake volunteered to return with the Cherokee and lived with them for several months. Timberlake later took a delegation of chiefs to England but, since the trip was not authorized by the government, they were practically ignored and returned disgusted.
Because Virginia had placed a bounty on Shawnee Indians, South Carolinians killed Cherokee because Cherokee and Shawnee looked alike. Cherokee warriors took revenge by killing 30 settlers. South Carolina demanded that the Cherokee surrender the subjects. The chiefs proposed to compensate for each death with a French scalp or prisoner, but South Carolina’s governor rejected this. South Carolina wanted Cherokee submission, not French scalps. 22 Cherokee chiefs traveled to Charleston to meet with the colonial government, but were seized and executed.
The Cherokee were tough foes for South Carolina. They numbered 12,000, perhaps double the population of Charleston, and in 40 villages throughout North and South Carolina were fairly dispersed. They ravaged the South Carolina frontier in 1760, captured the British Fort Loudon, and posed a threat to British and South Carolina troops.
In 1761, the British and the colonies invaded and destroyed 15 Cherokee towns. The British blockade of New Orleans cut off the French supply to the Indians and the Creek Indians remained neutral. Without French troops to help either, the Cherokee struggled. Finally in 1761, the Cherokee fell and ceded vast tracts of land to the colonists.
After the fall of Montreal, and by 1760, with only the Cherokee War still taking place, and the French not participating in this, peace negotiations between Britain and France began. At this time, though, King George II died, and new King George III took over. He fired William Pitt, who he thought had become too powerful and popular.
Negotiations continued, as did fighting in the Caribbean between the British, French and Spanish.
Finally in February 1763, the major European powers met and signed the Treaty of Paris. As part of the treaty, France gave to Britain all of Canada and all North American claims east of the Mississippi River. France ceded the Louisiana Territory to Spain (Napoleon would get it back). Britain gave France back its major sugar islands, Guadeloupe and Martinique, but gave up a few minor ones.
Spain also gave up Florida to Britain, yet took back control of Cuba, which had temporarily fallen to the British.
60-second Quiz #3: How were British relations with the Indians affected by the war? Which effect is NOT true?
a. The British traded peacefully with the Indian, and this induced them (the Indians) to fight against the French secured British victory
b. The British relied on Indians to remaining exclusively neutral in the war and this neutrality was decisive in securing British victory
c. The British exclusively tried to secure alliances with Indians to advance their (the British) military interests
d. The British sought alliances with some Indians, neutrality with others, and war against still others, all to advance their (the British) military interests
IV. End of the war, consequences of the war
So Britain emerged as the major winner. But not everything was rosy.
The Indian tribes of the Ohio Valley, stung by the defeat of their French allies, and seeing the British now in control of their homelands, were outraged, because they knew their lives would change for the worst.
English dominance in North America meant the construction of new forts and the movement of new settlers into traditional Indian lands. The earlier French presence had been slight and the relationship often harmonious.
British traders lacked the reputation for fairness in dealing with the Indians that had been the hallmark of the French. The natives had become dependent on European firearms, ammunition and other manufactured goods, and were now forced to deal with untrustworthy English partners.
British arrogance was well-known among the Indians. The French in many instances had married native women and been adopted by the tribes. Few British followed that example and many expressed utter contempt for the natives' cultures and worth as human beings.
Tensions were further heightened when, in early 1763, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, the new North American governor-general, announced that he would discontinue the practice of presenting annual gifts to the tribes, an event long honored by the French. The Indians were insulted by this snub, but also were angry to be denied the expected tools, blankets, guns and liquor.
A native visionary called the Neolin the Prophet seized on this anger and preached for a return to traditional ways and for the rejection of contact with the British. He encouraged Indians to resist colonial culture, to reject alcohol, and to stop giving up their lands. Neolin’s teachings influenced many Indian tribes who had been allies with the French, including Pontiac, an Ottawa chieftain.
Inspired by Neolin and Pontiac, Indians launched a widespread rebellion against the British, capturing forts in the Great Lakes region and the Ohio Valley, raiding settlements in PA, MD, and VA, and killed or captured 2,000 whites. They hoped to incite the French to jump back into the conflict, but they failed to capture the major British posts of Detroit, Niagara, or Pittsburgh. Though eight British forts fell to the Indians in late 1763, the British in the ensuing year simply escalated their attacks against the Indians throughout the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes regions, and began to win.
The British turned the tide, because the Indians did not have any central organization. Contrary to popular belief, Pontiac was NOT the central commander of the movement. Rather, he was one figure in it, and the British pinned the blame on him.
The rebellion sparked several unrelated atrocities; in Pennsylvania, for instance, a group of Scotch-Irish vigilantes called the Paxton Boys attacked a settlement of peaceful Christian Indians in Lancaster, taking out their anger about the government’s inability to protect land-grabbing settlers on the frontier on peaceful Indians who for years had coexisted peacefully with the Penn family’s example. Sifting through the ashes of the community they had destroyed, they found the treaty of friendship papers that the Indians had signed with William Penn in 1701.
What were the effects of the French and Indian War and of Pontiac’s Rebellion?
(1) Knowing they could not defend the western borders, George III of Britain issued the Proclamation Line of 1763 forbidding Western settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains. Designed to preserve peace and to protect whites, the Proclamation Line angered colonists who claimed land to the west. It also angered the colonies themselves, because they saw it as limits on their land rights and their growth and expansion. The Proclamation Line did not only prohibit future settlement—it also demanded that people already settled west of the line leave.
(2) Another major legacy of the war was debt. During the war, Britain’s national debt had more than doubled to 132 million pounds, mainly because of William Pitt’s leadership. It needed to be paid off. With English taxes already at all-time highs, they turned to the colonies for revenue. After all, most of the fighting had occurred in the colonies; it only seemed fair that the colonies should pay for it.
(3) Third, furthermore, following the war, Britain kept 10,000 troops in colonial America to keep peace between colonists, Native Americans, and the French, mainly on the frontier. Who better to pay for these troops than the people who would most benefit from their presence, the colonists themselves?
(4) Fourth, the war led American settlers and British administrators to conclude that Indians and whites could not coexist peacefully, and that extermination was the only option.
(5) Fifth, during the War, with an increased presence in the colonies, the British realized that the colonists had ignored anti-smuggling acts, most especially, they had ignored the 1733 Molasses Act that forbade them to import French molasses to make rum. The British could not believe that even during the war, the colonists were trading with the enemy and disrespecting British laws.
(6) Sixth, the war had cultural consequences for the future of British and American relationship; I’ve identified four:
a. It had united the colonists in a shared experience and hardship and had strengthened the bonds, the news, and the similarities, between the colonies.
b. It spread resentment—colonists felt that they were always second-fiddle militarily in the eyes of the English; the English treated them as inferiors.
c. Finally, it exposed the cruelty of the English military.
d. Neither side liked what it saw in the other. To the English the Americans were arrogant amateurs; to the Americans the English were brutal bullies, ungrateful for Americans’ skills and efforts.
So by 1764, the war was over, the Indian rebellion had been put down, but Indians were more hated than ever. The British and their colonies were victorious, but the colonists and the British were divided and resentful, rather than joyful and united. The British were also broke.
Thus would begin a chain of events that led to the War of American Independence…we’ll pick it up there next time.
60-second Quiz #4: What were some of the major effects of the French and Indian War? Which result is NOT true?
a. Continued tension (and war) with Indians, due to pressure by the English to seize more Indian land
b. Increased debts for the English government and, therefore, increased pressure from England onto the colonies to pay higher taxes to finance the debt
c. Lingering presence of British troops (“regulars”) in the colonies to keep the peace
d. Immediate calls for the colonies’ independence from Great Britain
Key for quizzes: