Appendix E: APA Citation
After reading this chapter, the student will be able to:
- Understand the purposes of citation;
- Recognize when to cite information;
- Understand different ways to cite sources;
- Find citation assistance when needed; and
- Cite sources in APA format
E.1 – Citation
E.2 – When to Cite
E.3 – Elements of Citation
E.4 – APA Resources
E.5 — Reference List
Citing your sources is part of using information. While there are many citation styles, used by different disciplines, this appendix focuses on APA Style.
Citation, in any style, has many functions; it:
- allows you to support the claims you make,
- gives credit to the source of the information, and
- allows your audience to locate the information if they want to learn more.
The practice of citation is inseparable from research, because new developments always build on existing knowledge. No individual knows everything there is to know about a topic, which is why research involves examining what is already known.
Engaging with the ideas of others is a way of adding your voice into a conversation about a topic. This can include agreeing with others’ perspectives, building on existing ideas, or introducing a new interpretation or counter-argument.
E.2—When to Cite
Any time you use someone else’s original ideas, statistics, studies, borrowed concepts, phrases, images, quoted material, and tables—their intellectual property—you cite to indicate its source. This reflects both the research you have done and your academic integrity.
Not everything you use in your work needs to be cited, though. You do not have to cite facts which are commonly known by your audience and easily verified in reference sources. You also do not have to cite information that comes from you, such as your opinion.
When in doubt, though, it’s not wrong to cite your source.
E.3- Elements of Citation
There are two main elements of citation: the brief in-context citation, and the full reference entry.
You may be used to citing in text, and while citing in speeches works differently, the same principles apply—you want to ensure that your audience knows where you found the information.
You can use both quotation and paraphrasing in speeches, and for either, be sure to provide the details about the source when you use the information.
Since quoting means using someone else’s exact words, you should indicate that you are using a quote. A few examples of how to do this are:
“As legendary football coach Vince Lombardi said, ‘Winning isn’t everything, but wanting to win is.’”
“Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh said, and I quote, ‘I would rather die of passion than boredom.’”
Paraphrasing, or restating a source’s ideas in your own words, is another option. Be sure to acknowledge the author, source, and date of the information you use. This can be accomplished in various ways, such as:
“During the December 27, 2017 episode of 60 Minutes, correspondent Lara Logan described the practice of airlifting rhinos by helicopter to protect them from poachers.”
“A 2017 study by Dr. Serge Ferrari, published in the medical journal Lancet, found that the use of drugs containing bone-forming agents in patients with osteoporosis reduced their risk of fragility fractures.”
You may have questions about APA style, and while full APA guidelines are included in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, other resources are also available. The APA runs a site, apastyle.org, that provides additional information about APA citation. Also, the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) has a wonderful online guide to APA citation, located at owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/. Of course, librarians are a good resource, too!
As part of a speech assignment, you will likely be asked to provide a list of references used. This may be on a slide, if it is a presentation file, or on a document, for printed or electronically submitted written materials that are submitted in conjunction with the verbal presentation of your speech.
Each source you used will be listed on this page, using a full APA-style citation. The page itself will be labeled “References,” and will list all of the sources you used in alphabetical order. An example of an APA-style References page is shown in figure E.1.
Book or eBook (APA manual, p. 202-203)
Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year). Title of book: Capitalize first letter in subtitle. City of Publication: Publisher.
Spellman, F. & Whiting, N. (2005). Environmental engineer’s mathematics handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Article, Chapter, or Work in a Reference Book or Edited Collection (APA manual, p. 204)
Author, A. (Year). Article or chapter title: Capitalize first letter of subtitle. In A. Editor, B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: Capitalize first letter in subtitle. (# ed., pp. #). Place of publication: Publisher.
Donnerstein, E. (2005). Is popular culture too violent? Media violence promotes violent behavior. In J. Woodward (Ed.), Popular culture: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 114-119). Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale.
Reference or Encyclopedia Article (APA manual, p. 203)
Author, A. (Year). Entry title. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of encyclopedia (Vol. #, pp. #). Place of publication: Publisher.
Richelle, M.N. (2001). Skinner, Burrhus Frederick (1904-1990). In N. Smelser & P. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 21, pp. 14141-14146). New York, NY: Elsevier.
Magazine Article (APA manual, p. 200)
Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue). Page(s).
Biedenharn, I. (2015, April 17). Grumpy, Inc. Entertainment Weekly, (1359/1360), 118.
Newspaper Article (APA manual, p. 200)
Author, A. B. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Title of Newspaper, p. SectionPage.
Brown, R. (2009, December 16). Long faces ethics complaint. Dalton Daily Citizen, p. A1.
Academic Journal Article (APA manual, p. 198-199)
Author, A.A. (Year). Article title. Title of Journal, Volume(issue), page(s).
Schultz-Bergin, M. (2018). Is CRISPR an ethical game changer?. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 31(2), 219-238. doi:10.1007/s10806-018-9721-z
Online Photograph, Illustration, or Image (not in APA manual, suggested format)
Creator, A. (Year). Title [Type]. Retrieved from https://www.thewebsite.com/restofurl
Historic American Buildings Survey. (1933). McCamy House, 401 South Thornton Avenue, Dalton, Whitfield County, GA. [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/item/ga0594
Reports (APA Manual, p. 205-206)
Author, A. (Year). Title (Report #). Location: Publisher.
Bauman, K. (2003). Educational attainment, 2000 (Census 2000 brief C2KBR-17). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Motion Picture (APA manual, p. 209)
Producer, A (Producer) & Director, A. (Director). (Year). Title [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.
Carroll, G. (Producer) & Rosenberg, S. (Director). (1991). Cool hand Luke [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.
Video (Documentary/Non-Motion Picture) (APA manual, p. 209)
Producer, A (Producer). (Year). Title [Format]. Available from http://www.producersURL.com
American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/videos
Online Video (not in APA manual, suggested format)
Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.website.com/specificURL
Adult Swim. (2014, November 7). Too many cooks [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrGrOK8oZG8